C1 Mintafeladat

2019 júliusától módosult az Olvasáskészség és nyelvismeret vizsga felépítése: kikerült a feladatsorból a Hiányos szöveg kiegészítése szókészletből és a Hibajavítás feladat, így a vizsgán 6 helyett csak 4 feladatot kell megoldani, amire 90 perc áll rendelkezésre.

A változásokkal a vizsgázók a 2019. évi őszi vizsgaidőszakban találkoznak először.

Az olvasáskészség és nyelvismeret vizsgafeladatok megoldhatók a weboldalon. A párhuzamba állított humán- és reálmodul feladatokkal a modul kiválasztását könnyítjük meg leendő vizsgázóinknak.

Read the following text. Choose the best heading from the list (A-L) for each part (1-10) of the text and write its letter in the boxes after the text. There is ONE EXTRA heading that you do not need to use. There is an example (0) at the beginning.

In the mind's eye


The author/philosopher Iris Murdoch (1919-1999) was one of the most important contributors to English literature of the 20th century.

She possessed one of the sharpest, most brilliant minds of her generation, writing 26 novels and many philosophical works in a fertile 40-year period. Thus the film Iris, depicting with brutal honesty the decline of such a mind, is all the more distressing.


Alzheimer's is a tragedy for all who suffer and those who witness, but for Murdoch, who lived so much inside her razor-sharp mind and who adored words - to suddenly lose the power of communication, it must have been devastating.


This is an intensely personal and moving film and it might be too harrowing for anyone who has elderly relatives, or who knows somebody suffering from Alzheimer's or for anyone who has ever worried - however neurotically - about the frailties of the human mind and the knife edge on which we balance between sanity and losing the plot completely.


I would even go as far as to suggest waiting for Iris to come out on video, because it's just too overwhelming, too moving and too personal to share with a group of coughing, popcorn- chomping strangers in a dark room.


The writing is excellent. The screenplay by Richard Eyre and Charles Wood after John Bayley's book Iris: A memoir and elegy for Iris, describes perfectly the gentle, enduring love and companionship between Iris and the stammering, stuttering John Bayley, the husband forever in her shadow, content to look up at her genius and adore.


Iris is filled with little detail such as how couples think of little, funny stories to tell each other when they get home at the end of the day and are reunited.

Dame Judi Dench is stunning in the role of the elder Murdoch, never mawkish, never sentimental. Her eyes convey somebody trapped within a decaying mind, or what's left of it. Then sometimes she looks at her husband with such tenderness and deep love that it will make you blub, if you're the blubbing type.


All through Iris's illness and decline, John (Jim Broadbent) was there looking after her, cajoling her, teasing her gently. Only at one point in the film does he lose patience with her, as he thinks back to her infidelities at college. This is a powerful scene and the only time when Alzheimer's is mentioned by name.


The film portrays Iris's declining years interspersed with scenes from her wild youth at Oxford . The flashbacks are used to good effect and provide a few moments of brightness and humour as the tone of the film become darker towards the end of Murdoch's life.

The scenes show what a feisty young lady she was, experimenting in physical relationships with both men and women and charming everyone, most of all Bayley, the young Warton professor who became besotted with the talented writer.


Opposites attract and the couple seemed an unusual yet perfect match. Iris teaches John about sex and society and he brings a stability to her vivid, imaginative, inner life.

Some scenes have rather too much meaningful dialogue; cycling along a country road John shouts at Iris from behind: "I can't catch up with you, you're going too fast."


Bayley is content to remain in Iris's shadow throughout her brilliant career, the part we sadly do not see anything of. Then towards the end of Iris's life, the roles are reversed and he has to look after her as she regresses into a child-like state, watching the Tellytubbies on television and questioning Tony Blair's speech on "Education, education, education."

"Why is that man saying that over and over again?" she asks with a child's piercing insight and, in retrospect, it does indeed sound totally fatuous.


Director Richard Eyre (usually of the London 's stage ) shows us the blissful domestic squalor in which the Bayley's lived, the incredible mess over the home of two minds absorbed in higher thoughts.

We see trips to the supermarket complete with eccentric, absent-minded professor-style intellectual banter. "Wholegrain mustard. But surely any entity is whole?"

"Bag for life?" asks the cashier at the checkout. Bayley pauses to think of the consequences. "Oh, rather!" he enthuses.

Iris and John are perfectly happy to exist in a symbiotic duo, each depending solely on the other. They have no children but indulge in a kind of baby talk, calling each other "puss" and "my little mouse".

Read the following text. Choose the best heading from the list (A-K) for each part (1-9) of the text and write its letter in the boxes after the text. There is ONE EXTRA heading that you do not need to use. There is an example (0) at the beginning.

Power to the people


Some people make their own bread; some make their own clothes. But the Harrison family from Chester in north-west England has taken self-sufficiency to new heights. They're making their own electricity.


The Harrisons are one of a handful of families in Britain and the Netherlands testing miniature power stations this winter. A boiler-sized unit in the garage burns natural gas to supply the family with hot water and central heating, just as their old boiler did. But the new unit also generates electricity, which keeps the bills down. Good news for the Harrisons. And good news for the environment too - if enough people can be persuaded to install them.


The unit in the Harrison's garage is what's known as a combined heat and power (CHP) plant. CHP has been commonplace in factories, schools and other large buildings for decades. According to Britain's Combined Heat and Power Association, CHP cuts fuel consumption by up to 35 per cent. That's because the waste heat from generating electricity - which power stations normally fritter away in cooling towers - is used to heat buildings and water instead. And you don't lose energy transmitting the electricity hundreds of kilometres along overhead cables.


Installing CHP units in houses seems like an obvious next step, but it hasn't been an option until now. Large CHP units generally run on either a gas-burning internal combustion engine or a gas turbine, but these are totally unsuitable for houses. Internal combustion engines are noisy and juddery and need frequent maintenance. Turbines, meanwhile, rapidly dwindle in efficiency as they're scaled down.

And there's another problem: in a factory or apartment block, CHP's main job is generating electricity. The waste heat is put to good use, but it's a by-product. Domestic CHP has to do it the other way round. You want hot water and heating on demand, not just when you've switched on a light or the television.


Together, these problems mean that there is no off-the-peg technology suitable for household systems. Many people assumed that fuel cells would fit the bill. Fuel cells burn gas to generate electricity, and they can be rigged up so that most of the fuel's energy goes into heat. They're also quiet and they have no moving parts, so don't need regular maintenance. Last month Plug Power of Latham, New York, and German heating firm Vaillant installed the first domestic CHP fuel cell in an apartment block in Glesenkirchen, Germany. But there are no units for single homes just yet.


This winter, however, personal CHP has become a reality. A few homes in Britain and the Netherlands are making their own electricity, and not a fuel cell in sight. Instead, the prime mover is a venerable technology called the Stirling engine. The Stirling engine was devised in 1816 by Scottish inventor Robert Stirling. It has a sealed tank of gas with a heat source at one end and a heat sink at the other, plus a piston arrangement inside. The heat flow from one end of the tank to the other is regulated to produce fluctuations in pressure, which drive the piston.


Stirling engines can be extremely efficient, but they have one big problem: they respond very slowly. That's because they are external combustion engines, so the heat has to be conducted from its source into the chamber before it can take effect. In a car's internal combustion engine, on the other hand, the fuel explodes inside the cylinders and does its work almost instantly. This precludes Stirling engines from most uses -- you don't want to put your foot down and then have to wait several seconds for your car to move.


But a short delay doesn't matter in CHP. And the engines have advantages that make them ideal for the cupboard under the stairs. They are quiet and efficient, can be scaled down, and need no more maintenance than your average boiler.


So why haven't they been put in personal power stations before? The reason, says David Moriarty, managing director of New Zealand-based Stirling engine company Whisper-Tech, is that the right materials have only just become available.

To work well, a Stirling engine needs to get hot. Its efficiency is the function of the temperature difference across it, so the hotter the "hot end" the better. Advanced materials, particularly high temperature steels and ceramics from the space programme, have recently allowed the hot end to rise to 1200 C, making the engines efficient enough to offer real energy savings. In a personal CHP unit, burning gas directly heats one end of the Stirling engine. The "cool end" draws waste thermal energy away and uses it to heat your water.


Whisper-Tech is one of two companies that have been putting CHP plants in homes this winter - 20 in Britain and about the same number in the Netherlands. Its unit replaces boilers that sit on the floor and produces about 6 kilowatts of heat plus 1 kilowatt of electricity. The competing unit, from British-based BG Group, is wall-mounted and produces up to 15 kilowatts of heat and 1.1 kilowatt of electricity. It's currently installed in 12 houses in Britain.

Both units cost more than a conventional boiler, but the energy savings should recoup the difference in three to four years.

Read the following text. Answer the questions (1-8) after it. Each question has four options (A-D). Choose the most appropriate option and circle its letter. There is an example (0) at the beginning.

The back roads of TUSCANY

Best-selling author Celia Brayfield and her teenage daughter, Chloe, discover the more tranquil side of northern Italy together on a late-autumn break

This was a holiday we really needed. We were stressed to bits. Chloe and I – she from her ten GCSEs, me from finishing my latest novel. We were listless, snappy creatures for whom the purpose of life was unclear. We decided to go to Italy in late October, and chose Tuscany for its outstanding loveliness, art, history and….pizzas.

At Pisa airport we rented a Fiat and zoomed down the autostrada, full of Spirito di Punto. We bypassed Siena and took a turn off that weaved its way uphill, through pretty villages to a shady country road lined with pine trees. Beside a romanesque convent and 12th-century church, a tiny lane led between golden vineyards to a hamlet of rose-coloured stone buildings. One of them was our hotel, the Borgo di Toiano.

It was a dreamy place where everything is exactly as it should be: the room charming, the view divine, the staff enchanting, the coffee strong, the pool inviting, the terraces flowery, the furniture plausibly antique, the lounge chintzy, and Siena a scenic 15 minutes away.

Toiano, a hamlet of 27 people, and several notable ancient buildings, was so quiet you could hear each leaf fall from the vines. I’d have been perfectly happy to spend the entire week there, pottering around the lanes, marvelling at the autumn colours, calling in at hillside bars and jolly village restaurants and trying to sketch all the architectural gems, gently crumbling in the shade of the cypress trees. Chloe would have been perfectly happy to spend the entire week watching bygone episodes of Friends on Italian television (Rachel dubbed in Italian did, I admit, have a certain charm). But the danger of London life-style reasserting itself became acute when we found that the pizzeria down the road did take-aways. I decided to inaugurate a cultural tour.

Kids are hard to impress. In infancy we had: "Mummy, why are you always looking at views?" Sightseeing negotiations had been under way for years - "one more church and you can have an ice-cream". I sensed a light at the end of the tunnel last year with "I know you keep telling me, but what are those round-topped arches called?" But I was concerned that the mandatory pilgrimages from duomo to art gallery might be too much, too young. Happily, I was wrong. My daughter was blown away. "This is so beautiful", she said, several times a day.

Michellin's Guide to Tuscany is spot-on about Siena, which it describes as "a mystic, gentle city of art and architecture with a passionate and generous soul." Ever-wise, it advises visitors to wear sensible shoes, because this medieval jewel is built over three hills and its centre is closed to cars. The walks from the city wall to Il Campo, the glorious curved Gothic square and Siena's focal point, around which the horses and riders race in the famous Palio, are short and fascinating and very steep.

The blend of modern and medieval is just absurd. At the cross-roads of a two-donkey lane we found Café Victoria, furnished with Internet access and a virtual reality motorbike ride, while each district, called a contrada has an ancient heraldic symbol on statues, chapels, wall plaques and street signs to mark its territory. Our best-decorated contrada prize went to the Snail district, which even engraved its little mollusc on telephone junction boxes.

The tourists track runs from the secular side, the Campo and the Palazzo Publico, with its soaring bell tower and allegorical frescos, to the religious side, dominated by the glorious wedding cake of a cathedral with its striped marble columns, pictorial stone floors and the associated treasures of the Baptistery and art gallery, bursting with bronzes by Duccio and Donatello. The narrow streets were crowded only during the rush hour and we had galleries of masterpieces completely to ourselves.

  1. Mother and daughter went on holiday because
  2. The hotel they stayed at was
  3. The reason why Celia opted for seeing the sights in the vicinity was that

Read the following text. Parts of some sentences have been removed from the text. Choose the most suitable part from the list (A-J) for each gap (1-8) in the text. There is ONE EXTRA part that you do not need to use. Write your answers in the gaps. There is an example (0) at the beginning.

The day the music was reborn

The funeral cortege moving past the flaking facades of a Cuban backstreet in the late Eighties might have marked the end of the Cuban dance hall sound. Among those mourning the death of Enrique Jorrin, the musician (0) , was the pianist Robert Gonzales, who was then little known outside his own country. Gonzales was convinced that the death of Jorrin, (1) , was the end of an era. Finally the old music had gone. The restrained boleros, the cha-cha-cha and the mambo would all now be drowned out by the disco music (2) .

How wrong Gonzales was. The 'old music' was yet to enjoy its most successful moment of all. Ten years ago an album (3) was put together in Havana by a group of old men and whimsically titled Buena Vista Social Club. What was more surprising still for Gonzales, (4) was that he was at the very centre of this late flowering of Cuban music.

The astonishing reaction to this famous recording has established it (5) . It has sold more than eight million copies and songs are now some of the best known in the world. Today you are still likely to hear a track such as 'Dos Gardenias' or 'Chan Chan', (6) , in Japan or in Canada. And the effect of the album ripples on. Now a new recording, reviewed later in this article, features some of the Cuban artists (7) .

Sadly singer Ibrahim Ferrer and Gonzales are no longer around (8) . Ferrer died last year aged 78, while Gonzales, described by many as one of the greatest pianists of his generation, died at the end of 2003. Singer and guitarist Compay Segundo also died that year, so perhaps music history will judge it is this anniversary which really marks the end of Cuban music's golden era.

Read the following text. Parts of some sentences have been removed from the text. Choose the most suitable part from the list (A-J) for each gap (1-8) in the text. There is ONE EXTRA part that you do not need to use. Write your answers in the gaps. There is an example (0) at the beginning.

Evolution in action

Cheshire 's meres and mosses are mysterious, elusive places. From a distance they don't look like much - in fact, you'd hardly know they were there. Yet these prehistoric ponds and marshes are a perfect breeding ground for all sorts of animals, plants and insects, (0) , there's actually a lot to see.

These meres and mosses are puddles left behind by the last ice age. (1) , they've been evolving ever since. A mere is how it starts, a moss is how it ends up, and each one is at a slightly different point in its evolution, (2) into peat bogs (mosses).

Meres and mosses are unique to the north west. Consequently, they're one of our most important wetland habitats. However, here in Cheshire there are loads of them, (3) . What makes them so intriguing, even to the layperson, is that within a few miles you can see several meres and mosses at various stages in the same process. It's like taking a trip in a geographical time machine.

Meres turn into mosses as they become colonised by plants. Water lilies give reeds a foothold. The reeds form a swamp, the swamp becomes fenland, and the fen becomes a moss. Each stage supports different flora and fauna, (4) , there's no telling what you'll see. A lot of these wetlands are on private land, but quite a few are open to the public, and one of the best places to see a few is in the Delamere Forest.

Delamere Forest is the largest wood in Cheshire and the site of over 100 meres and mosses. It's managed by the Forestry Commission, (5) . In recent years the forest has been opened to nature lovers. There's a thriving visitor centre, a short walk from the train station, where I met Steve Ayliffe, a conservation officer with English Nature, the government agency (6) . 'There's been a decline in the value of timber,' says Ayliffe, as we head into the forest. 'The timber production side's probably less important than it was, (7) .'

There used to be even more meres here before the land was drained for forestry. However, (8) , conservationists are slowly restoring the original wetland landscape. Blakemere Moss was (re)flooded 12 years ago.

Read the following text, from which some words have been removed. Use the appropriate form of the word in brackets to fill each gap (1-12) in the text. Be careful. The bracketed word may sometimes stay as it is. Write only ONE word on each line. There is an example (0) at the beginning.

A delicate talent

When, 15 years ago, Nicola Beauman embarked on this life of 'the other Elizabeth Taylor', the novelist and not the film star, she had been deprived of documents that would certainly have been of tremendous use to her. These were the letters that, over a period of some three decades, Taylor wrote regularly and at (0) (long) to the novelist Robert Liddell, living in self-exile in Greece. Aware that she was terminally ill, she asked him to burn her side of their (1) (correspond), and no less regrettably then destroyed his. Was he right to (2) (obedience) this injunction from a woman whom he himself described as the best letter-writer of the 20th century? I myself, as I told him at the time, thought not; but others, perhaps morally more (3) (scruple), approved.

The reason usually given for Taylor's demand is that, intensely (4) (privacy) and discreet, she did not wish (5) (reveal) about her life or the lives of her neighbours to gain general currency. I have an (6) (add) explanation. Writers have a way of embellishing reality in order to make it more arresting and amusing; and from the (7) (little) that Liddell preserved of the letters in his book Elizabeth and Ivy, I suspect that this is what had happened in this case. May not Taylor have not wanted her embellishments eventually to be shown up as (8) (fake) and have therefore decided on the holocaust?

The (9) (curiosity) thing is that this friendship was, until its final few years, an (10) (entire) epistolary one. On holidays in Greece, Taylor could easily have called on Liddell but decided not to do so. When she eventually paid a visit, he has recorded her extreme (11) (nerve) as she first stepped over his threshold. 'She might have been entering a hospital theatre for a life-or-death operation' was how he described it to me. I regard Taylor's regular penning of confidences to a man whom she had never met as similar to the way in which an (12) (ignorance) child chats to a doll or a lonely OAP to a cat or a dog. In effect, she was conversing less with him than with herself.

Read the following text, from which some words have been removed. Use the appropriate form of the word in brackets to fill each gap (1-12) in the text. Be careful. The bracketed word may sometimes stay as it is. Write only ONE word on each line. There is an example (0) at the beginning.

Dunes alive with the sand of music

Some roar, some boom, other squeak and a few even sing. They (0) (trance) Marco Polo when he crossed the Gobi desert in the 13th century, and (1) (refer) to their mysterious sounds can be found in 9th-century Chinese literature. Now one (2) (physics) has put forward an explanation for why sand dunes hit the right tones.

"Singing dunes constitute one of the most puzzling and (3) (impress) phenomena I have ever encountered.", says Bruno Andreiotti of the University of Paris. Andreiotti has been studying the crescent-shaped sand dunes of the Sahara desert in Morocco, one of around 30 (4) (locate) in the world where dunes are known to sing.

The Saharan dunes hum like a low-flying, twin-engined jet, and can be heard kilometers away. Elsewhere, dune sounds have been (5) (like) to drums, foghorns and trumpets, among other things.

In all cases, the sound seems to be triggered by sand avalanching down the sides of the dunes. But no one knew why the tumbling sand produces a (6) (resonate) note and not just a (7) (mess) rumble.

To find out, Andreiotti (8) (deliberate) started avalanches in Saharan sand dunes to set them singing. He then measured the vibrations in the sand bed and in the air around the dune, and used the data to figure out how the sounds were being produced. He argues that the cascading layer of sand behaves like the membrane of a loudspeaker, moving up and down at a frequency that generates (9) (audio) sound. "The measurement clearly shows the (10) (exist) of this motion," he says. The amplitude of the vibrations is about 0.07 millimetres - roughly a quarter of the (11) (wide) of one grain of sand - so although they are not (12) (vision) to the naked eye, if you lie down on the dune you can feel them, says Andreiotti.
But there is still the matter of explaining why the cascading layer vibrates.